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Week 1 - The Changing Role of the Press

Section Objectives

  • Explain and utilize a causal inference framework to construct, discuss, and critically analyze research arguments.
  • Assess how changes in news media format, regulatory limitations, and market incentives have influenced the delivery of news.
  • Discuss Indexing Theory as described in Zaller (1999) and Ch. 4 of Iyengar & McGrady (2011), paying special attention to the dependent and independent variables used.
  • Discuss Adversarial Tone as described in Zaller (1998), paying special attention to the dependent and independent variables used.

Key Terms and Concepts

  • Adversarial Tone 
  • Analytical Journalism
  • Deferential Tone
  • Descriptive Journalism
  • Fairness Doctrine
  • Hard News
  • Indexing Theory
  • Market Model
  • Mirror Image Theory
  • Organizational Process Model
  • Rally Effect
  • Regulatory Double-Standard
  • Soft News

Section Slides

**See attached .pdf file.

Summaries of Selected Weekly Readings

Author Puzzle Hypothesis Dependent Variable Independent Variable
Zaller (1998)

What leads journalists to adopt an adversarial tone towards politicians?

 

Adversarial media tone increases (decreases) as restrictive news management of campaigns increases (decreases).

Tone of media coverage Type of candidate news access
Iyengar & McGrady (2011) What leads journalists to adopt critical tone regarding political issues and topics? Critical media tone increases (decreases) as oppositional stances of elite politicians increases (decreases). Tone of media coverage Level of opposition/support for issue among elites
Zaller (1999) What leads journalists to adopt either a "hawkish" or a "dovish" tone toward foreign policy issues and topics? Degree of hawkish/dovish tone increases (decreases) as the degree of hawkish/dovish tone among elite politicians increases (decreases). Tone of media coverage Level of opposition/support for war among elites