- Explain and utilize a causal inference framework to construct, discuss, and critically analyze research arguments.
- Assess how changes in news media format, regulatory limitations, and market incentives have influenced the delivery of news.
- Discuss Indexing Theory as described in Zaller (1999) and Ch. 4 of Iyengar & McGrady (2011), paying special attention to the dependent and independent variables used.
- Discuss Adversarial Tone as described in Zaller (1998), paying special attention to the dependent and independent variables used.
Key Terms and Concepts
- Adversarial Tone
- Analytical Journalism
- Deferential Tone
- Descriptive Journalism
- Fairness Doctrine
- Hard News
- Indexing Theory
- Market Model
- Mirror Image Theory
- Organizational Process Model
- Rally Effect
- Regulatory Double-Standard
- Soft News
**See attached .pdf file.
Summaries of Selected Weekly Readings
|Author||Puzzle||Hypothesis||Dependent Variable||Independent Variable|
What leads journalists to adopt an adversarial tone towards politicians?
Adversarial media tone increases (decreases) as restrictive news management of campaigns increases (decreases).
|Tone of media coverage||Type of candidate news access|
|Iyengar & McGrady (2011)||What leads journalists to adopt critical tone regarding political issues and topics?||Critical media tone increases (decreases) as oppositional stances of elite politicians increases (decreases).||Tone of media coverage||Level of opposition/support for issue among elites|
|Zaller (1999)||What leads journalists to adopt either a "hawkish" or a "dovish" tone toward foreign policy issues and topics?||Degree of hawkish/dovish tone increases (decreases) as the degree of hawkish/dovish tone among elite politicians increases (decreases).||Tone of media coverage||Level of opposition/support for war among elites|